Ignatius Donnelly

The Colonies of Atlantis

The Central American and Mexican Colonies

The proximity of the western shores of Atlantis to the West India Islands made it feasible for a seafaring people to venture from island to island until they reached the mainland. Columbus noted that the natives of these islands were already making such voyages in open canoes.

Given the commercial activity of the Atlanteans, it is plausible that they would have discovered and established trade routes to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.

As commerce often leads to colonization, it is likely that Atlantean trading posts evolved into settlements, spreading into the interior regions and the highlands of Mexico.

The traditions of Central America and Mexico indicate a connection to a distant eastern land across the sea. This region, known as “Aztlan,” was remembered as a beautiful and peaceful homeland where their ancestors once lived in harmony.

Dr. Le Plongeon, an explorer of Yucatan, observed notable similarities between the Maya language and Greek. He suggested that one-third of the Maya language is pure Greek. He questioned whether the Greeks brought their dialect to America or the Mayas took theirs to Greece. Additionally, the Maya language contains words from Assyrian, indicating ancient connections with other advanced civilizations.

The civilization of Central America, including Mexico, was highly advanced and populous. Dêsiré Charnay, a prominent explorer, noted that the Toltecs were fair, robust, and often bearded. He found ruins in Central America as vast and impressive as those in Egypt, with some cities covering areas up to six miles in diameter.

Charnay’s findings include:

  • Architecture: Ancient cities with public buildings and palaces.
  • Materials: Masonry, cement, sculptures, bricks, glassware, and porcelain similar to those found in the Old World.
  • Metallurgy: Bronze composed of copper and tin in the same proportions as in Europe, as well as copper coins and candlesticks.
  • Fauna: Fossilized bones of swine, sheep, oxen, and horses, indicating an ancient presence of these animals.

The Toltecs practiced a pure and simple religion, engaged in farming, weaving cotton, and cultivating fruits. They extensively used the sign of the Cross and depicted animals like the elephant and the lion, which were not native to America. Their burial practices included cremation, burial in a sitting position, and embalming similar to Egyptian mummies.

Government and Society

The government of ancient Mexico was an elective monarchy, akin to Poland, with a king selected from the royal family by the nobles. Mexican society included a royal family, aristocracy, priesthood, judiciary, and common people, resembling European societal structures. The nobles held land through military service, reflecting a feudal system. Judges were independent of the king, holding life terms, with a hierarchical judicial system from supreme judges to local magistrates.

A general legislative assembly, convening every eighty days and presided over by the king, included all judges and served as the ultimate court of appeal. Marriage was formalized with ceremonies and legal protections, including a dedicated tribunal for marital issues. Slavery was present but regulated, with slaves having certain rights and their children born free.

Religion and Culture

The Aztec religion had many parallels with Old World beliefs, including confession, absolution, and baptism. Children were named through a ritual involving water, symbolizing the washing away of original sin. The priests, numerous and powerful, practiced fasts, vigils, and monastic seclusion.

The Aztecs progressed through three writing stages: picture-writing, symbolic, and phonetic. They recorded laws, tributes, mythology, astronomical data, rituals, political annals, and chronology on various materials, including cotton cloth, parchment-like skins, and paper made from the aloe plant. They also cultivated poetry, oratory, and rhetoric, and had theatrical performances.

Astronomy and Daily Life

Their astronomical knowledge was advanced, accurately determining the tropical year’s length. The women, described as pretty with a melancholic cast, engaged in spinning, embroidery, and storytelling. Banquets were elaborate, with attendants, scented halls, and decorated tables. The cuisine included meats, vegetables, fruits, confections, and drinks like chocolatl and maguey juice.

Public Works

Their public works included floating gardens, aqueducts, bridges, forts, temples, palaces, and pyramids adorned with statuary. Their architecture, such as the Palenque arch, resembles ancient Greek constructions like the “Treasure-house of Atreus” at Mycenae and Etruscan vaults. These structures utilized overlapping stone courses to form arches, a technique found in both regions.

Proofs that the Egyptians were a colony from Atlantis

Descent from the Twelve Great Gods: The Egyptians claimed descent from “the twelve great gods,” a reference likely to the twelve gods of Atlantis, including Poseidon, Cleito, and their ten sons. This connection implies a shared heritage and origin.

Phoenician Traditions: According to Phoenician traditions, Egyptian civilization derived from the Phoenicians, who themselves owed their origin to Atlantis. Misor, an ancestor of the Egyptians, was said to be a child of the Phoenician gods Amynus and Magus. Misor fathered Taaut, the god of letters and the inventor of the alphabet, who became the Egyptian Thoth, the god of history. This suggests that Egyptian civilization may have stemmed from Atlantean influences mediated through Phoenician culture.

Biblical Lineage: The Bible describes the Egyptians as descendants of Ham, one of Noah’s sons who survived the Deluge, interpreted as the destruction of Atlantis. This narrative supports the idea of a common origin in Atlantis.

Civilizational Similarities: There is a significant resemblance between the civilizations of Egypt and those of ancient American nations, indicating a shared cultural and technological foundation likely derived from Atlantis.

Claimed Ethnicity: The Egyptians identified themselves as red men, which might link them to the red-skinned Atlanteans described in various traditions.

Sun Worship: Egyptian religion prominently featured sun-worship, with Ra as the sun-god. Similar sun deities and sun festivals (e.g., Rama in Hinduism, Rana among the Toltecs, Raymi in Peru, and Rayam in Yemen) indicate a widespread Atlantean influence.

Presence of Pyramids: Both Egypt and ancient American civilizations constructed pyramids, a significant architectural link that suggests a common origin.

Atlantean Knowledge: The Egyptians had detailed knowledge about Atlantis, despite not being a maritime people. This implies that Atlanteans brought this knowledge to Egypt.

Underworld Beliefs: The Egyptian concept of the “under-world” situated in the West, across the water, aligns with the idea of Atlantis as the drowned world. The funerary practices of crossing water to reach the tombs on the west bank of the Nile, and the presence of a sacred ark in funeral processions, further suggest an Atlantean influence.

External Origins of Civilization: There is no evidence that Egyptian civilization developed independently in Egypt. Instead, it appears to have been transported from elsewhere, likely Atlantis. The sophistication of Egyptian civilization from its earliest records suggests a long developmental history in a different location.

Additional Evidence

Art and Architecture: The precision and sophistication of Egyptian masonry, the construction of the pyramids, and the similarity of their architectural styles to those found in ancient American ruins support the theory of a shared origin.

Technological and Scientific Knowledge: The advanced mathematical, astronomical, and medical knowledge of the Egyptians indicates a high level of civilization that likely developed over millennia in Atlantis before being transferred to Egypt.

Cultural Practices: Shared cultural practices, such as the use of hieroglyphs, similar religious rituals, and complex societal structures, suggest a common heritage with Atlantis.

Geographical and Mythological Connections: The descriptions of the Elysian Fields and the underworld in Egyptian mythology closely resemble the accounts of Atlantis, reinforcing the idea of a shared origin.

The colonies of the Mississippi Valley

Hypothesis of Migration and Colonization

The hypothesis posits that a civilized maritime people from Atlantis planted colonies along the headlands and shores of the Gulf of Mexico, eventually spreading to the table-lands of Mexico and the plains and mountains of New Mexico and Colorado. Over time, these navigators discovered and explored the mouth of the Mississippi River, planting colonies along its fertile and salubrious shores. This movement resulted in the settlement and civilization observed in the Mississippi Valley.

Evidence of the Mound Builders

The Mound Builders of the United States are considered river people, with their densest settlements and greatest works near the Mississippi and its tributaries. Key characteristics and evidence include:

  1. Geographical Spread: Their settlements spread up the Mississippi River and over its tributaries but did not cross the Alleghany Mountains. They extended far up the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers into Oregon, with major centers of population near the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
  2. Construction of Earthworks: The Mound Builders created large structures of earth and stone, including great pyramidal mounds similar to those found in Mexico and Egypt. An example is the mound of Cahokia, which rises ninety-seven feet high with square sides measuring 700 and 500 feet respectively.
  3. Monumental Works: In Ohio alone, there are over ten thousand tumuli and numerous enclosures. Their mounds were often four-sided pyramids aligned with the cardinal points, requiring advanced mathematical and engineering skills.
  4. Weights and Measures: They had accurate systems of measurement, as evidenced by bracelets of uniform size and weight, and their enclosures often comprised exact geometric shapes such as perfect squares and circles.
  5. Military Works: They built extensive fortifications with embankments and artificial lakes for water supply. Fort Ancient on the Little Miami River had a circuit of between four and five miles and could accommodate a large population.
  6. Artifacts and Tools: The Mound Builders produced various artifacts and tools, including copper implements, ornaments, and cast objects. They also worked with silver and possibly iron. Notably, they had the ability to plate copper with silver and cast metals.

Connection to Atlantis

  1. Cultural and Technological Similarities: The civilization of the Mound Builders shows similarities with the Bronze Age in Europe, suggesting a shared origin or influence. Their use of earth mounds, geometric constructions, and metalworking points to advanced knowledge likely derived from Atlantis.
  2. Art and Sculpture: The artistic representations found in the mounds include detailed carvings of animals and birds, demonstrating a high level of skill similar to that seen in other ancient civilizations.
  3. Interregional Connections: Evidence of trade and contact with regions around the Gulf of Mexico includes the presence of tropical animal representations and materials such as obsidian and marine shells.
  4. Chronological and Archaeological Evidence: The antiquity of the Mound Builders’ works is supported by the advanced state of decay of their skeletal remains and the presence of cultivated plants with no wild originals, indicating long-term habitation and development.
  5. Historical Movement: The retreat of the Mound Builders southward toward Mexico, coinciding with historical events, suggests a movement back to kindred races in Central America, paralleling other historical migrations following major disruptions.
  6. Ritual Practices: The perpetuation of a perpetual fire and other ritualistic practices among descendants such as the Natchez Indians reflects religious traditions that could trace back to Atlantean influences.

The Iberian colonies of Atlantis

The Iberians in History and Mythology

The Iberians, an ancient race, inhabited the Iberian Peninsula (modern-day Spain and Portugal) from the Mediterranean to the Pyrenees, extending over southern Gaul (modern-day France) as far as the Rhone. The origins and spread of the Iberians suggest a connection to Atlantis and early human migrations. Here’s an exploration of their history, culture, and connections to Atlantis:

Ancient Origins and Settlements:

  • According to Professor Alexander Winchell, the Iberians from Atlantis and north-western Africa settled in south-western Europe earlier than the Egyptians settled in north-eastern Africa. The Iberians spread across Spain, Gaul, and the British Isles around 4000 to 5000 B.C. During the fourth dynasty of Egypt (circa 3500 B.C.), the Iberians had become powerful enough to attempt world conquest.
  • Diodorus mentions the Libyan-Amazons, likely referring to the Iberians of Libya, depicted on Egyptian monuments of the fourth dynasty with brown and grizzly skin.

Cultural and Linguistic Legacy:

  • The Iberians, known as Sicanes, colonized Sicily and were the original settlers in Italy and Sardinia. They may have contributed to the dark-haired population in Norway and Sweden. Bodichon suggests they included Ligurians, Cantabrians, Asturians, and Aquitanians.
  • Strabo notes that the Turduli and Turdetani (Iberian tribes) were highly cultured, employed writing, and claimed an ancient history of 6000 years through written books, poems, and laws.

The Basques as Modern Iberians:

  • The Basques are considered descendants of the ancient Iberians. They have a distinctive culture and language (Euskara), which some scholars argue has similarities with languages of the Altai family, such as the Finnic and Algonquin-Lenape languages.
  • Physically, Basques are described as robust, agile, and of darker complexion than Spaniards, with gray eyes and black hair. They are known for their pride, hospitality, and fondness for dancing and music.

Cultural Parallels and Connections

Relationship with the Berbers:

  • Dr. Bodichon notes the resemblance between the Bretons of Brittany and the Cabyles of Algiers, suggesting a shared origin. Both groups exhibit similar physical traits, cultural characteristics, and behaviors, hinting at a common Atlantean ancestry.
  • The Bretons differ significantly from their surrounding Celtic neighbors, suggesting a different ancestral lineage possibly tied to ancient navigators and settlers from Atlantis.

The Worship of Neptune:

  • The Atlanteans, known for their maritime prowess, were believed to be the children of Neptune (Poseidon), introducing the worship of this god to other cultures, including the Egyptians. This connection underscores their role as early navigators and colonizers.
  • The spread of Atlantean culture and religion through maritime activities could explain the presence of similar myths, deities, and cultural practices across distant regions.

Physical and Cultural Distinctions:

  • The physical and cultural traits of the Bretons and Basques distinguish them from other European populations, aligning more closely with the Atlantean descriptions.
  • The persistence of unique languages, such as Euskara, and cultural practices suggests a deep historical continuity, potentially tracing back to an Atlantean origin.


The Iberians, a significant ancient race, may have origins tied to the lost civilization of Atlantis. Their early settlements, cultural achievements, and linguistic heritage indicate a rich and influential history. Modern descendants, such as the Basques and Bretons, maintain unique characteristics that reflect this ancient legacy. The connections between the Iberians and other cultures around the Mediterranean and beyond highlight the far-reaching influence of Atlantis and its role in shaping early human civilization.

The Peruvian Colony

Introduction to the Peruvian Connection

Examining the map of Atlantis as revealed by deep-sea soundings, one finds that it once approached closely to the shore of South America, near the mouth of the Amazon. This connection suggests that Atlantis may have influenced or even established colonies in South America. The theory posits that Atlantean explorers ventured up the Amazon Valley, bypassing the inhospitable lowlands of Brazil, and eventually settled in the highlands of Bolivia and Peru.

Colonization Patterns

The hypothesis suggests that the Atlanteans, renowned for their maritime prowess, expanded westward from their island homeland. They likely sailed up the Amazon, establishing colonies in the fertile and healthful highlands of Bolivia before crossing into Peru. This pattern mirrors their expansion in other regions, such as the Mississippi Valley in North America and across the Mediterranean to the Black Sea and Caspian regions.

Evidence of Advanced Civilization

Upon the arrival of the Spaniards, Peru was a highly developed civilization, encompassing a vast and populous empire with advanced civil organization and impressive achievements in various arts. The Spaniards found extensive ruins that indicated a much older civilization than that of the Incas. These included massive stone structures, advanced aqueducts, and extensive road systems.

Ancient Ruins and Constructions

  • Tiahuanaco: Described by Cieça de Leon, this site features enormous stone structures, including idols, platforms, and porches made from single stones, suggesting an advanced and ancient civilization.
  • Gran-Chimu: This capital of Northern Peru covered twenty square miles with pyramids, tombs, and intricate municipal buildings.
  • Lake Titicaca Region: This area was another center of ancient civilization, with buildings constructed from hewn stone, featuring complex doors and windows.
  • Cuelap: Northern Peru also housed massive structures, such as a wall of wrought stones 3600 feet long and 150 feet high, indicating sophisticated engineering skills.

Advanced Infrastructure

  • Aqueducts: The Peruvians built extensive aqueducts, with one stretching 450 miles, showcasing their advanced understanding of hydraulics and engineering.
  • Roads: Their roads, often built on masonry, spanned the length of the empire and featured suspension bridges, reflecting engineering feats rivaling those of Roman roads.

Cultural and Technological Parallels

There are numerous similarities between the Peruvian civilization and ancient European cultures:

  • Religion and Beliefs: Worship of the sun, moon, and planets, belief in the immortality of the soul, and practices like embalming the dead.
  • Priestly Practices: Similar to Roman augurs, Peruvian priests divined the future by examining the entrails of sacrificed animals.
  • Societal Structures: Presence of castes, an order of knighthood, and a system of governance involving a hierarchical structure similar to European models.
  • Architecture and Art: The resemblance between Peruvian and Pelasgian (ancient Greek) architecture is significant, with similar construction techniques and aesthetic styles.

Linguistic Connections

Señor Vincente Lopez and Dr. Rudolf Falb have suggested linguistic connections between the ancient Quichua language of Peru and Aryan or Indo-European languages. These studies indicate that the roots and structures of Quichua show significant similarities to ancient languages from both the Aryan and Semitic families.

The African colonies

Overview of African Ethnic Diversity

Africa, like Europe and America, showcases a diverse mix of ethnicities and races. The African population ranges from light-skinned Berbers to the dark-skinned Iolofs, highlighting a spectrum of racial characteristics. Among these are traces of red or copper-colored races found in various parts of the continent.

Classification of African Races

Prichard’s classification of the true negroes includes a second class characterized by features similar to Europeans but with varying complexions from deep olive to copper color, and hair ranging from crisp and frizzled to straight. This category includes groups such as the Bishari, Danekil, Hazorta, and Abyssinians.

Examples of African Ethnic Diversity

  • Abyssinians: Their complexion varies from almost white to dark brown or black, and their hair ranges from straight to almost woolly.
  • Nubians: Some Nubians are described as copper-colored or black with a tinge of red.
  • Barbary States: This region, also known as ancient Atlantis or the Atlas region, includes Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Benzazi. It is home to the Berbers, who call themselves Mazirgh, meaning a “noble race.”
  • Berbers: An ancient and indomitable nomadic people with various physical appearances, including white, black, and those with woolly hair.

Berbers and Their Influence

The Berbers, an ancient people dating back to the times of Menes and Phoenician navigators, have historically been a dominant force in the region. They have been described as a strong, robust, and copper-colored people, with the women known for their beauty.

Physical Characteristics of Berbers and Related Groups

  • Barbary Moors: Nearly identical to southern Europeans in stature and features, with complexions darker only due to the warmer climate.
  • Temsena and Showiah: Copper-colored people with robust physiques.
  • Fez and Mequinas: The people here vary from fair-skinned like Europeans to those with red-and-white complexions and dark hair and eyes.

Fulani (Foolahs) of West and Central Africa

The Fulani are an exceptional group in Africa, presenting a mix of physical characteristics and a history that sets them apart from neighboring tribes. They have a tradition of being descendants of white ancestors, and their physical traits range from almost white to mulatto color, with features and skull shapes akin to Europeans. Their languages and cultural practices further distinguish them from typical Negro tribes.

Nubians and Mediterranean Influence

The Nubians, like the Fulani, are not black but yellowish-brown or red-brown, with curly or straight hair and prominent noses, reflecting a Mediterranean type. Their languages also show no connection to the tongues of the negroes proper.

Archaeological Evidence

  • Cromlechs of Algeria: General Faidherbe’s research on these ancient structures suggests they were built by a race that migrated from the Baltic shores to the southern coast of the Mediterranean. These dolmen-builders are believed to be the ancestors of the Berbers.
  • Tamahu Invaders: Egyptian monuments depict blond tribes from the West, known as Tamahu, invading Lower Egypt around 1500 BCE. These invaders might be the ancestors of the Tuaregs and other fair-skinned African tribes.

The Irish Colonies from Atlantis

Introduction to Irish Origins

Ireland’s history is rich with legends and annals suggesting that it was colonized before the Great Flood. These narratives propose a connection between Ireland and Atlantis, emphasizing early settlements that date back to ancient times.

Pre-Deluge Settlements

The oldest Irish legends recount the arrival of three Spanish fishermen driven to Ireland before the Deluge. Following them were the Formorians, led by Lady Banbha (or Kesair), who brought fifty maidens and three men—Bith, Ladhra, and Fintain. The “Cin of Drom-Snechta,” quoted in the “Book of Ballymote,” supports this legend, indicating Ireland’s settlement before the Deluge.

The Formorians and Their Origins

The Formorians are described as a warlike race, possibly Atlanteans, who arrived in Ireland from the West. Their name, F’omoraig Afraic, implies an origin from the West (Atlantis), as Africa at that time referred to the western lands. The Formorians, considered aboriginal by some historians, possessed advanced naval capabilities and civilization.

Subsequent Invasions

Ireland saw various invasions after the Formorians, including:

  1. Partholan’s People: Probably Atlanteans from Spain, defeated and expelled by the Formorians.
  2. Neimhidh: Another invader who initially succeeded but was eventually driven out by the Formorians.
  3. Fir-Bolgs: Conquered and divided Ireland into five provinces, only to be overthrown by the more advanced Tuatha-de-Dananns.
  4. Tuatha-de-Dananns: A highly civilized race known for their advanced metalworking and medical knowledge.
  5. Milesians: The final invaders, arriving around 1700 B.C., possibly Basques or Iberians from Spain.

Connections Between Invading Races

The Irish annals suggest that the various invading races—Partholan’s people, the Nemedians, Fir-Bolgs, Tuatha-de-Dananns, and Milesians—were all descended from Magog, son of Japheth, son of Noah. This lineage indicates a shared Atlantean ancestry. The Milesians’ history, involving Egypt, Crete, Scythia, and Africa, reinforces their connection to Atlantis.

Ancient Irish Civilization

Ireland’s ancient civilization is notable for several reasons:

  1. Continuous Inhabitation: From the Formorians before the Deluge to the Milesians in the historic period, Ireland remained continuously inhabited.
  2. High Antiquity: Irish civilization predates many other European civilizations, with the Formorians arriving before the Deluge.
  3. Recognition by Ancient Civilizations: Ireland was known as Hiranya (Island of the Sun) in Sanskrit texts, the Sacred Isle and Ogygia by the Greeks, indicating its ancient and esteemed status.
  4. Sun-Worship: The initial religion was sun-worship, aligning with other ancient cultures derived from Atlantis.

Druidism and Atlantean Influence

Druidism in Ireland and its spread to England and France highlight several practices linked to Atlantis:

  1. Metempsychosis: Belief in the transmigration of souls, predating Pythagoras.
  2. Human Sacrifices: Practiced by Druids in Gaul and Britain, though not in Ireland.
  3. Sun-Worship Rites: Including the lighting of new fire and Beltinne (Bel’s fire), reflecting ancient sun-worship customs.

Cultural Parallels and Practices

Numerous cultural practices in Ireland show parallels with other ancient civilizations, including:

  1. Game of Jacks: Similar to Roman practices.
  2. Keen or Lament for the Dead: Still found in Algeria and Upper Egypt.
  3. Wakes and Funeral Feasts: Identical to those of Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans.
  4. Oriental Customs: Similar to Hindu practices, suggesting a shared origin rather than direct migration from India.

The Round-Towers of Ireland

The round-towers, similar to structures in America, Sardinia, and India, suggest a widespread architectural influence originating from Atlantis. These towers, some dating back to pre-Christian times, indicate an advanced and shared building tradition.

Traditions of a Western Land

Irish legends and traditions of a land in the Far West, preserved among the descendants of the Tuatha-de-Dananns, suggest an ancient memory of Atlantis. Stories of St. Brendan’s voyage to a western land further support this connection.

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