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Padma Purana

Creation story

The creation story in the Padma Purana generally follows the cosmological model common to Hinduism, involving cycles of creation, preservation, and dissolution. The primary aspects of the creation narrative include the emergence of the cosmic egg (Brahmanda) and the subsequent division of the egg into various elements, leading to the formation of the universe.

The Padma Purana may also contain details about the creation of the deities, celestial beings, and the first humans. It may explore the concept of time, the different planes of existence, and the interplay of the gunas (modes of nature) in shaping the material world.

The creation of humans is often interconnected with the broader cosmogonic narrative.

In many Puranic accounts, including potential stories within the Padma Purana, the first humans are not created randomly but are the result of a deliberate act by a higher cosmic force. Some common elements in these narratives include:

Creation by the Creator
The first humans are often created by the supreme deity or creator of the universe. This act of creation is intentional and is part of the divine plan for populating the world.

Cosmic Elements
The creation of humans involves the use of various cosmic elements or substances. The Puranas may describe the mixing of different elements, symbolic rituals, or divine breath as part of the process.

Progenitors and Genealogy
The Puranas often present genealogies tracing the origin of human beings to specific divine progenitors or ancestors. These progenitors may have divine attributes or a special connection to the gods.

Dharma and Duties
Alongside the creation of humans, the Puranas typically emphasize the concept of dharma (righteous duty) and the responsibilities of human beings in maintaining the balance of the universe. Moral and ethical principles are often intertwined with the creation stories.

The Puranas often present genealogies tracing the origin of human beings to specific divine progenitors or ancestors. Who are these progenitors and ancestors?

Brahma is often depicted as the creator of the universe in Hindu mythology. He is one of the Trimurti, along with Vishnu and Shiva. In some genealogies, the first human beings are said to be created by Brahma.


In Hindu cosmogony, Manu is a progenitor of humanity. There are different Manus in different cosmic cycles, and each Manu is the ancestor of humanity during their respective era. The current Manu in the present cycle is known as Vaivasvata Manu or Manu Vaivasvata. According to Puranic traditions, Manu is often saved by a divine figure, such as Matsya (the fish avatar of Vishnu), from a deluge, and he becomes the progenitor of the new humanity.

The Prajapatis are a group of divine beings associated with procreation and the creation of living beings. They are often considered the mind-born sons of Brahma. Daksha is one of the prominent Prajapatis, and his daughters, the Dakshayani (including Sati and Parvati), play important roles in various myths.

Svayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa
Svayambhuva Manu is another Manu mentioned in the Puranas, and his wife Shatarupa is considered the mother of humanity. They are often associated with the early stages of creation and the propagation of the human race.

Kardama and Devahuti
In the Bhagavata Purana, Kardama is a Prajapati, and his wife Devahuti is the daughter of Manu Svayambhuva. They are the parents of Lord Kapila, an important figure in the philosophical traditions of Hinduism.

Noah and Vaivasvata Manu

List of similarities between the story of Noah and Vaivasvata Manu or Manu Vaivasvata

The stories of Noah in the Abrahamic traditions (as found in the Bible) and Vaivasvata Manu in Hindu traditions (as found in the Puranas) share several similarities, indicating common themes of a global flood and the survival of humanity through divine intervention. Here are some of the key similarities:

  1. Global Flood: In both narratives, there is a catastrophic, worldwide flood that inundates the entire Earth. This flood is described as a divine intervention or punishment.
  2. Divine Warning: Before the flood, the central figures, Noah and Manu, receive a divine warning about the impending catastrophe. They are informed of the need to take specific actions to ensure their survival.
  3. Building an Ark/Boat: In response to the divine warning, both Noah and Manu are instructed to build a large vessel to save themselves, their families, and representatives of various living beings. The ark in Noah’s story and the boat in Manu’s story serve as means of protection against the flood.
  4. Saving Animals: In both accounts, the central characters are responsible for preserving representatives of the animal kingdom. They are instructed to bring pairs of animals onto the ark or boat to ensure the survival of various species.
  5. Survival of the Righteous: The flood is often depicted as a divine judgment against the wickedness of humanity. Noah and Manu, along with their families, are portrayed as righteous and are chosen to survive the deluge, highlighting the theme of divine favor and salvation.
  6. Duration of the Flood: In both stories, the floodwaters cover the Earth for a significant period. In the Bible, the rain lasts for 40 days and 40 nights, while in Hindu traditions, the floodwaters are said to last for a similar duration.
  7. Release of Birds: In both narratives, a bird is sent out to determine if the floodwaters have receded. Noah releases a dove in the Bible, and Vaivasvata Manu releases a bird (often a crow or dove) in Hindu traditions.

Sons and Daughters of Noah and Manu

The stories of Noah and Manu involve their roles as progenitors of humanity after surviving a catastrophic flood. Let’s explore the sons and daughters of Noah and Manu in their respective traditions:

Sons and Daughters of Noah:


  1. Shem: Shem is often mentioned as the eldest son of Noah. According to biblical genealogy, Shem is considered the ancestor of the Semitic peoples, including the Israelites and Arabs.
  2. Ham: Ham is another son of Noah. His descendants are associated with various peoples in the biblical narrative, including some traditionally identified with Africa.
  3. Japheth: Japheth is the third son of Noah. His descendants are often associated with Indo-European and Eurasian peoples.


The Bible does not explicitly mention the names of Noah’s daughters. The focus is primarily on the three sons and their descendants.

Sons and Daughters of Manu (Vaivasvata Manu):

In Hindu traditions, Manu is considered the progenitor of humanity, and his wife, Shatarupa, is the mother. The names of their children vary across different Puranic texts, but some common names include:


  1. Ikshvaku: Ikshvaku is often mentioned as the eldest son of Manu. He is considered the founder of the Solar Dynasty (Suryavansha) and is an important figure in the Ramayana.
  2. Nabhaga: Nabhaga is sometimes mentioned as one of Manu’s sons. His story is found in certain Puranic texts.


The Puranas do not always provide names for the daughters of Manu. The emphasis is often on the sons and their roles in the continuation of humanity.

Kali Yuga

The final and current age in the cycle of four Yugas in Hindu cosmology, is characterized by a decline in virtue and an increase in unrighteousness. According to Hindu tradition, Kali Yuga is the age of darkness, where spiritual and moral values are at their lowest. Several characteristics are attributed to Kali Yuga in various Hindu scriptures, including the Puranas and the Mahabharata. Here are some of the prominent features associated with Kali Yuga:

  1. Deterioration of Virtue (Dharma): Dharma, which refers to righteousness and moral order, is believed to decline significantly during Kali Yuga. There is a prevalence of unrighteousness, dishonesty, and corruption.
  2. Shortened Lifespan: Compared to the earlier Yugas, human lifespan is said to be greatly reduced in Kali Yuga. People are believed to live much shorter lives.
  3. Decreased Physical and Mental Prowess: Physical and mental strength and abilities are considered to be diminished in Kali Yuga. People are said to be weaker both physically and intellectually.
  4. Increased Strife and Discord: The age is characterized by increased conflict, quarrels, and discord among people. Social harmony and cooperation are believed to be at a low point.
  5. Decline in Spiritual Practices: The emphasis on spiritual practices and the pursuit of higher knowledge is reduced during Kali Yuga. People are said to be less inclined towards spiritual pursuits and more focused on material desires.
  6. Degeneration of Social and Family Values: Social and familial bonds weaken, leading to a breakdown in traditional family structures. Respect for elders and moral values is diminished.
  7. Proliferation of Adharma: Adharma, meaning unrighteousness or unethical behavior, is believed to be widespread during Kali Yuga. Greed, selfishness, and deceit are prevalent.
  8. Deterioration of Environmental Conditions: The environment is thought to suffer during Kali Yuga, with natural disasters and ecological imbalances becoming more prominent.
  9. Decrease in Human Qualities: Virtues such as truthfulness, compassion, and patience are believed to decline, giving way to a rise in vices like dishonesty, cruelty, and impatience.
  10. Degradation of Knowledge: Knowledge and wisdom are said to diminish, leading to a lack of understanding of spiritual truths and a decline in the pursuit of higher knowledge.


Wars in the sky

Battle between Devas (Gods) and Asuras (Demons): The Puranas describe frequent conflicts between the Devas and Asuras, who are celestial beings with divine or demonic qualities, respectively. These battles often take place in the higher realms, including the skies or heavens.

Devi Mahatmya (Durga Saptashati): This sacred text, found in the Markandeya Purana, narrates the story of the goddess Durga’s battles against the demon Mahishasura. The battles are fierce and involve the goddess riding on a lion, wielding various weapons, and ultimately defeating the demon.

Ramayana: In the Ramayana, the epic poem attributed to the sage Valmiki, there are instances of aerial battles. One notable example is the battle between Lord Rama and the demon king Ravana. The final confrontation involves Ravana’s flying chariot, Pushpaka Vimana, and various aerial maneuvers.

Mahabharata: While the Mahabharata primarily focuses on the Kurukshetra War fought on the ground, there are instances where divine beings participate in aerial battles. For example, Arjuna’s encounters with celestial beings and his journey to various heavenly realms involve aerial elements.