New theory: Anubis – Responsible for The great flood


  • Inpu (or Anpu): This is the original Egyptian name for Anubis, meaning “to decay” or “to putrefy,” which aligns with his association with mummification and the afterlife.
  • Imy-ut (or Imiut): This title translates to “He Who is in the Place of Embalming,” emphasizing his role in the mummification process.
  • Khenty-amentiu (or Khentyamentiu): This name means “Foremost of the Westerners,” where “Westerners” refers to the dead. It signifies Anubis’s position as a protector of the deceased and ruler of the necropolis.
  • Neb-ta-djeser: This title means “Lord of the Sacred Land,” indicating his dominion over burial grounds and cemeteries.

Anubis is one of the most significant deities in ancient Egyptian mythology, primarily associated with mummification and the afterlife. Here’s an overview of his attributes and roles:

Description and Symbols:

  • Appearance: Anubis is typically depicted as a man with the head of a jackal or as a full jackal. The jackal is associated with cemeteries and the dead, highlighting his role in funerary rites.
  • Color: His head or body is often shown in black, symbolizing the color of mummified flesh and the fertile soil of the Nile, indicating rebirth.

Roles and Responsibilities:

  • God of Mummification: Anubis is considered the inventor of embalming and the protector of the dead. He presided over the mummification process, ensuring that the deceased were properly prepared for the afterlife.
  • Guardian of the Dead: He protected graves and cemeteries from desecration.
  • Guide to the Afterlife: Anubis guided souls to the afterlife and oversaw the weighing of the heart ceremony, where a soul’s heart was weighed against the feather of Ma’at (truth) to determine its worthiness for the afterlife.


  • Parentage: Anubis is sometimes depicted as the son of Osiris and Nephthys, though other traditions suggest he is the son of Ra.
  • Weighing of the Heart: In the Hall of Ma’at, Anubis would weigh the heart of the deceased against the feather of Ma’at. If the heart was lighter or equal in weight, the soul was granted passage to the afterlife. If it was heavier, it was devoured by the demon Ammit.


  • Temples and Cults: Anubis was widely worshipped across Egypt, with several temples dedicated to him. His cult was especially prominent in areas associated with the burial process.
  • Priests of Anubis: These priests were responsible for embalming and performing the necessary rites for the dead. They often wore masks of Anubis during ceremonies.

Anubis’s role in Egyptian mythology underscores the importance of the afterlife and the complex rituals surrounding death in ancient Egyptian culture. His iconic representation and the mythology surrounding him highlight the Egyptians’ profound reverence for the journey of the soul after death.

Anubis is primarily associated with the following animals:

  1. Jackal: Anubis is most commonly depicted as a man with the head of a jackal or as a full jackal. The jackal, a scavenger often found around cemeteries, symbolizes his connection to death, burial, and the protection of graves.
  2. Dog: In some contexts, Anubis is also associated with dogs, reflecting similar protective and funerary attributes as the jackal. Dogs, like jackals, were seen as guardians of the dead.

The jackal and, to a lesser extent, the dog, are the primary animals linked with Anubis, emphasizing his roles in mummification, protection of graves, and guiding souls to the afterlife.

The Dog Child – The Kumulipo: a Hawaiian creation chant

The mystery of spirit life born into the body of a dog belongs to the breed described in this chant as dark red (’i’i), brindled (’a’a), and hairless (’olohe). 

The hairless’Olohe people with whom the brindled dog is associated are believed to be dog men with the mystical shape-shifting powers of the demigods.1 

They lived in caves dug into the sandhills, where they are said to have been first discovered and used by Kahekili in the eighteenth century as a division of his army.

Living witnesses today report men with dogs’ heads marching in the ghostly processions of dead warriors returned to revisit their old haunts on earth, whose apparition is not uncommon among Hawaiians or is even reported by foreign-born mystics.

Their relation is not clear with a class of powerful wrestlers, also called ’Olohe, who, contrary to the custom of the long-haired native warrior, cropped their hair and oiled the body to escape the clutch of an opponent and would lie in wait at strategic points along a trail to attack unwary travelers.

The brindled dog associated in the chant with the dog-headed ’Olohe was supposed to have been born into the family of the volcano goddess and to be under her protection.

Although ordinary dog meat was a favorite dish among Hawaiians and allowed also to women, one would hesitate to cook such a dog for fear of divine vengeance.

Opening key word is ano, a word for “sudden fear,” here used in duplicate as anoano in the first five lines.

There is “fear of the mountain top,” the kualono where gods assemble; fear of the receding and advancing night, the Po-ne’e-aku and Po-ne’e-mai, who are the generating agents of the new birth; fear of “the pregnant night”; fear of a “breach of the law,” the ha’iha’i, whose penalty is death.

The reference is to the priestly taboos against leaving any morsel unconsumed of a sacrificial feast or bones and refuse exposed to be trodden upon, and against approach to any sacred place by the “narrow trail” used by a member of the priesthood alone.

Fear changes to the more violent emotion of dread, he weliweli, and finally to an awesome sense of reverence, he [’ili]’ilihia, toward the dog child, the ’ilio kama, born to Po-ne’e-aku and Po-ne’e-mai:

A dark red dog, a brindled dog
A hairless dog of the hairless ones
A dog as an offering for the oven.

Kupihea was told by his grandfather, who served in a temple on Hawaii, that dogs were not used for sacrifice until Kalaniopu’u’s time, but this may not hold true for other islands. In the passage following, the “dog as an offering for the oven,” literally “fire-pit,” ’a’alua, seems to serve as symbol of the terrible tapu wela, the right given to high taboo chiefs of burning the bodies of trespassers against their taboos, this as a kind of propitiation for the god who had been offended by the disrespect paid him in the person of his divine spokesman on earth.

Pokini would doubtless refer the passage to the bestowal of the burning taboo upon Keawe’s first-born at the time when he was officially introduced by name in the heiau to the rank of a high taboo chief.

The line of thought seems to be next deflected to the journey of the disembodied dead, perhaps of one who has been

Comparison between Anubis and Xolotl

Certainly! Here is the comparison between Anubis and Xolotl in table format:

CultureAncient EgyptianAztec
Roles– God of mummification and embalming– God of fire and lightning
– Protector of graves and cemeteries– Protector of the sun in the underworld
– Guide for souls to the afterlife– Guide for the dead to Mictlan
– Overseer of the weighing of the heart– Associated with twins, deformities, and misfortune
Depiction– Man with the head of a black jackal– Dog-headed man or monstrous dog with backward feet
– Full jackal
Symbols– Jackal– Dog
– Scales– Fire
– Mummification tools– Lightning
Mythology– Associated with Osiris, often considered his son– Twin brother of Quetzalcoatl
– Involved in the mummification process of Osiris– Guides the sun through the underworld and aids souls to Mictlan
Similarities– Guides souls to the afterlife– Guides souls to the afterlife
– Protective nature– Protective nature
– Associated with canines (jackals, dogs)– Associated with canines (dogs)
Differences– Cultural context: Egyptian– Cultural context: Aztec
– Involved in mummification and judgment– Linked to fire, lightning, and sun protection
– Depicted with a jackal’s head– Depicted with more monstrous features


Hermanubis is a syncretic deity combining elements of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Anubis. This fusion reflects the blending of Greek and Egyptian cultures during the Hellenistic period, particularly after the conquests of Alexander the Great and the subsequent rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

Here’s an overview of Hermanubis:

Roles– Guide of souls to the afterlife
– Psychopomp (conductor of souls)
– Protector of the dead
Depiction– Man with features of both Hermes and Anubis
– Often shown with a jackal head and wearing the caduceus (staff of Hermes)
Symbols– Caduceus (staff of Hermes)
– Jackal
Mythology– Represents the merging of Greek and Egyptian religious practices
– Combines Hermes’ role as a messenger and guide of souls with Anubis’ role in mummification and protection of the dead
Attributes– Psychopomp, guiding souls to the afterlife
– Protector of graves and cemeteries
– Involved in rituals and ceremonies related to the dead


  • Syncretism: Hermanubis exemplifies the syncretism that occurred in the ancient world, where deities and religious practices were often blended as cultures interacted.
  • Role: As a psychopomp, Hermanubis helped guide souls to the afterlife, a role critical in both Greek and Egyptian religious traditions.
  • Depiction: Combining elements of Hermes (the Greek messenger god and guide of souls) and Anubis (the Egyptian god of mummification and protector of the dead), Hermanubis often appears with characteristics of both gods, such as the caduceus of Hermes and the jackal head of Anubis.

Comparison with Anubis and Hermes:

CultureAncient EgyptianAncient GreekGreco-Egyptian
Roles– God of mummification and embalming– Messenger of the gods– Guide of souls to the afterlife
– Protector of graves and cemeteries– Guide of souls (psychopomp)– Psychopomp (conductor of souls)
– Guide for souls to the afterlife– God of travel, commerce, and thieves– Protector of the dead
– Overseer of the weighing of the heart
Depiction– Man with the head of a black jackal– Young man with winged sandals and a herald’s staff (caduceus)– Man with features of both Hermes and Anubis
– Full jackal– Often shown with a jackal head and wearing the caduceus
Symbols– Jackal– Caduceus (staff of Hermes)– Caduceus
– Scales– Winged sandals– Jackal
– Mummification tools– Petasos (winged hat)
Mythology– Associated with Osiris, often considered his son– Son of Zeus and Maia– Represents the merging of Greek and Egyptian religious practices
– Involved in the mummification process of Osiris– Involved in guiding souls to the afterlife– Combines Hermes’ and Anubis’ roles

Hermanubis represents a fascinating example of cultural and religious integration, reflecting the dynamic nature of ancient mythologies.


The Hawaiian Kanaloa god of darkness and the underworld, takes over man at death.

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