The Codex Vaticanus

Stars and Constellations

The Codex Vaticanus (CODEX B) is one of the oldest and most important manuscripts of the Bible. It is named after the Vatican Library where it is housed, catalogued as Vaticanus Graecus 1209. The codex is written in Greek and dates back to the 4th century. Here are some key details about the Codex Vaticanus:

The Codex Vaticanus is considered one of the most valuable manuscripts for the textual criticism of the Bible, especially the New Testament. It is one of the earliest surviving copies of the Bible, providing insight into the early Christian church’s scriptural traditions.

The manuscript originally contained a near-complete Bible, but some parts have been lost over time. Notably, it includes the Old Testament (in the Septuagint version) and the New Testament, although it lacks portions of Genesis, the Psalms, and the Pastoral Epistles, among others.

The Codex Vaticanus is written in uncial script, a type of writing characterized by large, rounded letters. It is noted for its high quality and precision. The manuscript is divided into three columns per page, which is unusual for ancient texts.

The origins of the Codex Vaticanus are not well-documented, but it is believed to have been produced in Egypt. It has been in the Vatican Library since at least the 15th century.

Alongside the Codex Sinaiticus, the Codex Vaticanus is one of the two oldest and most complete manuscripts of the Greek Bible.

The Codex Vaticanus has been studied extensively by scholars. In recent years, high-resolution images of the manuscript have been made available online, allowing broader access for research and study.

Despite its age, the Codex Vaticanus is in relatively good condition, though some pages are missing or damaged.

Stars and constellations

Bible does contain references to stars and constellations.

Job 9:9:

“He is the Maker of the Bear and Orion, the Pleiades and the constellations of the south.”

Job 38:31-32:

“Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades? Can you loosen Orion’s belt? Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons or lead out the Bear with its cubs?”

Amos 5:8:

“He who made the Pleiades and Orion, who turns midnight into dawn and darkens day into night, who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out over the face of the land— the Lord is his name.”

Isaiah 13:10:

“The stars of heaven and their constellations will not show their light. The rising sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light.”

Genesis 1:14-18:

“And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.’ And it was so. God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good.”

2 Kings 23:5:

“He did away with the idolatrous priests appointed by the kings of Judah to burn incense on the high places of the towns of Judah and on those around Jerusalem—those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun and moon, to the constellations and to all the starry hosts.”

Isaiah 14:12-15:

“How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! You said in your heart, ‘I will ascend to the heavens; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon. I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.’ But you are brought down to the realm of the dead, to the depths of the pit.”

Jeremiah 31:35:

“This is what the Lord says, he who appoints the sun to shine by day, who decrees the moon and stars to shine by night, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar—the Lord Almighty is his name.”

Daniel 8:10:

“It grew until it reached the host of the heavens, and it threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them.”

Matthew 2:2:

“and asked, ‘Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.'”

This verse refers to the Star of Bethlehem, which guided the Magi to the birthplace of Jesus.

Revelation 1:16:

“In his right hand he held seven stars, and coming out of his mouth was a sharp, double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance.”

Revelation 12:1-4:

“A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads. Its tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth.”

This apocalyptic vision uses stars as symbols for celestial events and beings.

Genesis 15:5:

“He took him outside and said, ‘Look up at the sky and count the stars—if indeed you can count them.’ Then he said to him, ‘So shall your offspring be.'”

God uses the stars to symbolize the countless descendants promised to Abraham.

Deuteronomy 4:19:

“And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars—all the heavenly array—do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshiping things the Lord your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven.”

This verse warns against the idolatry of celestial bodies.

Psalm 8:3-4:

“When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, what is mankind that you are mindful of them, human beings that you care for them?”

The psalmist reflects on the majesty of the heavens and God’s care for humanity.

Psalm 147:4:

“He determines the number of the stars and calls them each by name.”

This verse highlights God’s sovereignty and intimate knowledge of the stars.

Isaiah 40:26:

“Lift up your eyes and look to the heavens: Who created all these? He who brings out the starry host one by one and calls forth each of them by name. Because of his great power and mighty strength, not one of them is missing.”

This verse emphasizes God’s power and care in the creation and maintenance of the stars.

Joel 2:10:

“Before them the earth shakes, the heavens tremble, the sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine.”

This prophetic vision describes cosmic disturbances as signs of the day of the Lord.

Matthew 24:29:

“Immediately after the distress of those days ‘the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.'”

Jesus speaks of celestial signs accompanying the end times.

1 Corinthians 15:41:

“The sun has one kind of splendor, the moon another and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor.”

Paul uses the differing splendors of celestial bodies to illustrate the glory of the resurrected body.

Revelation 6:13:

“And the stars in the sky fell to earth, as figs drop from a fig tree when shaken by a strong wind.”

This apocalyptic imagery depicts cosmic upheaval during the end times.

Home > Stars and Constellations