Kyomarz or Gil-shah – First man

100,000 BCE

Paschal Beverly Randolph provides an account of Kyomarz (also spelled Kyomurz) in “Pre-Adamite Man” as part of his exploration of ancient Persian traditions. Here is the relevant passage from the book:

Quoted Passage on Kyomarz

“When all this was done, God called into existence a being named Kyomarz, or Gil-Shah; and he was the father of all the present human race—that is to say, of the Persians. ‘Gil’ means ‘clay,’ ‘Shah’ means ‘king,’ ‘Kyomurz’ means ‘First Man.’ Thus we have the first king; earth-king; king of the earth, and Adam. The time that has elapsed since Gil-Shah lived must be computed at not less than one hundred thousand years.

In this identical book, whose antiquity is very great indeed, we learn that a certain king of their country was in the habit of fighting pitched battles with the Deeves—an order of disembodied gentry, who took to building cities in the province of Mazunduran; he defeated them, but the remains of their cities still remain. This is a very pretty conceit, but have we not something very like it concerning battles with spiritual beings, led on by Michael and Satan? Is there the remotest connection between the two accounts?”​​.


  • Creation of Kyomarz: Randolph describes Kyomarz, or Gil-Shah, as a primordial being created by God to be the progenitor of the Persian people. Kyomarz is equated with the concept of the “First Man” and is described as the first king, emphasizing his foundational role in human history according to Persian tradition.
  • Etymology: The names “Gil-Shah” and “Kyomurz” are explained, with “Gil” meaning “clay” and “Shah” meaning “king,” which Randolph interprets as denoting Kyomarz as the “First Man” or “earth-king.”
  • Timeline: The text asserts that Kyomarz lived at least 100,000 years ago, placing him in a much more ancient timeline than traditionally accepted historical figures.
  • Battles with Deeves: Randolph recounts legends of Kyomarz engaging in battles with the Deeves, disembodied entities that built cities in Mazunduran. This narrative is paralleled with biblical stories of battles between spiritual beings, suggesting a possible connection between different cultural mythologies.


Randolph uses the figure of Kyomarz to illustrate the deep antiquity and mythological richness of Persian traditions, aligning with his broader argument for the existence of pre-Adamite civilizations. This account challenges conventional timelines and supports the idea of an ancient, advanced human history.

Home > Kyomarz or Gil-shah – First man